Zanjan Travel guide
Zanjan province in west of Iran
Zanjan that is the capital of Zanjan province is located in the northwest of Iran and is one of the largest cities in that area. According to published statistics, the population of this city was 386, 851 in the solar 2011 that is the 18th city of the country in terms of population. This city is famous for Handicrafts such as welding, silvering, fabrication, decoration, carpet and rug.
Zanjan is bounded to the city of Tarom, Khalkhal and Mianeh, from the east to Soltanieh and Tarom, and to the south to Khodabandeh and Ijrud, and to the west to Mahnashan. This city is 1663 meters above sea level.
The dominant language among the people of Zanjan is Turkish-Azerbaijani language, with it is own accent. However, Persian is also common among the members of some families. Now the use of Persian words in daily conversations is common among the people of the region. People in Zanjan speak Farsi in offices, schools and public places and in their everyday and local conversations they use Turkish.
The people of Zanjan are Shiites Muslims, and every year walk from Ferdowsi Avenue to the Azadi Boulevard in the eighth Muharram. This ceremony that is more than a hundred years old will be held every year as the symbols of mourning and religious act of Zanjan people. The population of the mourning group is between 500,000 and 1 million. Which has been registered as the tenth spiritual heritage of the country.
The first new school in Zanjan was opened in 1906 by Vaymehman Ghaffari, the ruler of Zanjan in that time and was founded by Ali Mohammad Farhoshi . The school's place was in Dar al-Hakam Shahr, and most of the children of the lords and nobles were studying there. School teachers were selected from among the scholars of the religious sciences and new teaching methods were taught to them. The school was dissolved one year after the departure of Wimmayon.
The first elementary school for girls in Zanjan that was called "Banat Primary School" established in 1921, and the first girls' high school called "Azram High School" was set up in 1935.
Sports in Zanjan
History of Zurkhaneh and Traditional sports in Zanjan
Zoorkhaneh in Zanjan
Zurkhaneh is the name of a set of sports movements with or without equipment that was held with special customs in the historic and cultural range since ancient times in Zanjan and Iran.
According to the report of the sports journalist's club, the name of Zurkhaneh is associated with the traditions and customs that have been circulating in the historical and cultural reach of Iran since the past.
The wrestling of Zurkhaneh was taken from a place that was called with the same name.
The wrestling races were held until 1939, but at the time of Reza Shah the new kinds of clubs were formed with the expansion of the new sports, and they established new principles for this traditional wrestling.
In the history of wrestling and sports, it has been stated that sport and amphibious movements were among the main daily routine activities of the Persians in ancient times. At the same time, society attaches particular value to their athletes because they are grateful for their physical strength and courage, and these athletes were always ready to protect and defend their family and land against enemies.
These people have always had a special place among the people and the rulers.
Then the fate of the wars was also shaped when these warriors fought without the involvement of the troops on both sides of the war.
It should be noted that Persian language has more than 30 words related to hero and heroic concepts, which itself reveals the interest of the Iranian people in heroes.
The history of the development of this field in Iran is different, but the history book shows that 4500 years ago in Zanjan and Mesopotamia there were works that are the essence of the existence and importance of these sports and skills, which is called "WRESTLING" today.
The works of Zoroastrians, the writings of Greek and Russian historians, as well as the Ferdowsi Shahnameh, all indicate the originality of the culture of wrestling in Iran and Zanjan.
With the arrival of Islam in Iran, this traditional sport received more and more attention and became more religious in its nature. Some believe that chivalry and folklore are some of the popular Sufism that exists among common people.
During the Safavid and Zandy days, Zurkhaneh spent his golden and thriving period, and in every city hundreds of heroes and common people were busy engaging in wrestling and learning techniques and rifles.
During the Qajar era, the interest in the wrestling increased so much that Nasir al-Din Shah, nominated a person that was called Saheb al-Dawlah to expand and develop this sport and promote the competition in various squares of the city.
Each year, with the holding of competitions, the Iranian candidates registered for the tournament, and they took possession of the championship Armband for one year. if they repeatedly won the championship for the three consecutive years, they were entitled Champion after that.
Although it is rooted in Iran's history and culture and is tied to the spirit of the Iranians, it has not received much attention from sports officials in recent years, and it seems that it does not enjoy the prosperity of the past.
This sport that was registered on Nov. 25, 2010 in the UNESCO World Heritage List is known as the world’s oldest bodybuilding sport.
Exercise and wrestling were among the main daily routine activities of Iranians in ancient times.
On the basis of history, Zurkhaneh was revived in the present form by Mahmoud, famously known as Puriya Vali, who was apparently believed to have died in the year 1393, about seven hundred years ago.
However, based on the historical behavior and myths of Zurkhaneh in Iran, there can be a much older history, because the Iranian people needed insurrection, wrestling and physical fitness from the beginning of the history.
The position of the pre-Islamic Zurkhaneh in the revival of the national movement of Iran and the oppression of the aliens, as well as the resurrection of Persian language, culture and ritualism and the lesson that has been prevalent in ancient times in Iran, is of particular importance.
The traditional manner following the legends of the ancient times and the first Shiites leader propagates and enhances the mood of heroism and chivalry in sports by virtue of poetry and stories.
Another major rule of Zurkhaneh is that athletes must adhere to such matters as humility, self-sacrifice, care, and assistance to the poor.
Similar to sports like karate and kung Fu, athletes play a turn based on the rankings they receive. This rating starts from the first one in which the athlete has one year of experience and ends in the ninth place with an athlete that has more than 45 years of experience.
Today in Zanjan there are more than 20 Zurkhaneh, one of the most important of these zurkhanehs is the Amir Kabir Stadium, which hosts national competitions of traditional sports in Iran.
Today’s sports are far different than the old ones. Today, the federation forbid the use of old way of dressing, but in cities like Kermanshah and Arak, it is still used as the past times.
Today, ancient Zurkhaneh competitions take place in some of the Iranian cities and especially in Zanjan, where each team consists of 10 people, one is a mentor, 8 athletes and one referee.
Zanjan province is one of the historical regions of Iran. Excavations and historical artifacts proves its history and its old age. Glijec Cave that is located at heights and overlook the village of Hajj Arash has been a human haven in prehistoric times. Within the cave, traces of the lives of the people of the Acheulean period to Baradostian (the newest stone tools of the Paleolithic Period) dates back to 16-30,000 BC have been found and this site is among the areas that proves the ancient civilization of this province. Ancient remains such as the Sagittarius and Sassanid temple fires in Tarom show that they have enjoyed a great boom in historical periods both on the margin and in the valley of the Ghezel Ozon and Zanjan rivers.
In 639 or 641, Yazdgerd sent a large army to confront the Muslims, and the Muslims defeated the Iranians in Nahavand. After the conquest of Nahavand, Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslims. The conquest of Hamadan, Qazvin, Abhar and Zanjan was carried out by the Kufa tribes.
During a hundred years of rule, the Samanids dominated part of present-day Iran and part of the neighboring countries. This vast territory in Iran included Zanjan, Qazvin, Ray, Tabarestan, Khorasan, Sistan and Kerman.
After the attack of Hulagu Khan on the Ismaili, then Baghdad and the extinction of the Abbasids caliphate in Baghdad, Iran became the center of the government of Ilkhanate Empire. The kings of Ilkhani had their headquarters in Soltanieh, Maragheh and Tabriz. The most famous kings of this dynasty were Ghazan Khan and the other Al-Jayto (Oljeito), famous for Sultan Muhammad Khoda Band. The Ilkhanid rule lasted from 1275 to 1371. It should be noted that the historic city of Soltanieh was built in 1325 by Al Jayto, and the important works of this historic city are still in place.
In the Zandieh period, one of the provinces of Iran was Khamseh, which was almost in line with the current Zanjan province. The name of Khamseh has been described as the establishment of tribes from the five villages of Shahsun, Bayat, Esnlou, Moghadam, and also there are five blocks of Zanjan Rood, Abharrood, Eidrud, Sajas Roud and Bazina Rood in this province. Khamseh province was also at the center of Zanjan during the time of Fath Ali Shah Qajar.
In 1931 Khamseh province included Zanjan and the suburbs, Zanjan Rood, Abharrood, Eidrud and central Zanjan. Also, according to the amendment of the divisions of the country on January 19, 1916, Iran was divided into 10 provinces and Zanjan's geographical area was located in first province.
Dasht-e-Sahin area, located 15 km northwest of Zanjan, is a beautiful plain with an area of more than thirty thousand. In this plain, you can also observe the lives of life deer with unarmed eyes.
In addition to the natural surroundings and the Sahrin hot water spring, there are several historical monuments such as the historic Sahrin Citadel, the old bath of Sahrin plain.
Near the village of Shokurchi, from Zanjanrood district of Zanjan, on the top of the natural rocks, which appear like a turret and ramparts in the castle, Storks have their own nest. The climate of the region has made it a pleasant habitat for these birds, and this combination of climate, natural landscaping, and the presence of stones have provided the basis for tourism in the area.
Storks Fort in Zanjan is one of the best symbols of friendship between man and storks on the margin of the Ghezel Ozan River, which has been in existence for many years. These nests that were built by stones at the top of the cliffs along the river are like a castle and each year brings hundreds of tourists to watch the stones in the area.
Ghezel Ozan River is one of the longest rivers in Iran. This river originates from the highlands of Kurdistan. It enters the southern part of the Zanjan province from the south in the form of spiral, and after crossing Khedabandeh, Mahanshan and northwest, enters Mianeh and Khalkhal districts and heading east towards Tarom Oliya. It then Re-enters the territory of Zanjan province and the city of Tarom.
Ghezel Ozan is a Turkish word and consists of two parts of Ghezel meaning red and Ozan means float. The historical name of this river was in the ancient Greek sources of Amadorus (derived from the name of the people of Amard). In Islamic sources, it is called the Creek Al-Abyad (meaning the white river), and in the Middle Ages the whole river was known as Sepidrud or Sefidrud. Now, from the source of this river to the Manjil called Ghezel Ozan.
Haji Kandi Historical Cave
This cave is located 35 km southwest of Zanjan city at the elevations overlooking the village of Hajj Arash, Zanjan province.
There is currently no access to the cave with machine. The massive cave naturally emerges from the erosion of limestone foundations, and with the proper weather inside it, it was a safe place for the early human is a prehistoric era.
Its dimension is 700 meters and at with the approximate height of 50 meters. Inside the cave, you can find the ornamental works of mankind from the Acheulean period to Baradostian that dates back from the sixteenth to thirty thousand years BC.
Inside the cave tools that are made of rock and bones of animal are seen abundantly.
What is most relevant to studying and important is the architectural effects inside the cave and the privacy and prominence of ownership of these tools, which seems that the construction of a 4-km roadway for the transfer of equipment and also the systematic review of this site is essential.
In addition, the southern rocks of the cave consist of very valuable green marble rocks that can be explored and exploited.
Considering the age and the prospect of this cave, it can be modified by changing the access path and creating facilities along the region and inside the cave and make it from the important areas of the recreational and tourism of the province. It is hoped that in the near future, scientists would be able to use the capabilities of this cave like other caves such as Katale Khor.
Sorkh Abad Protected Area
Protected area of Sorkh Abad has many vegetation communities of trees and shrubs, grasses, wheat and barley. In addition, 400 plant species are also identified in this area. This area includes wild animals and many birds including deer, goat, pig, leopard, bear, rabbit, wolf, fox, turtle and 14 reptile species. The species of birds in Sorkh Abad Protected Area are Crow, Vulture, Golden Eagle, Bale, Owl, Ducks and many other kinds. Of aquatic animals, there are also amphibians and six fish species. Sorkh Abad protected area is considered as one of the most important wildlife habitats of the province and it is considered one of the centers of attraction of tourists due to the wide area of vegetation and animal habitat.