Iran Historical Tours
Chogha Zanbil is one of three Iran historical tours that was registered in the UNESCO world list along with Persepolis and Naqsh-e Jahan Square in 1979. Continue reading to learn more about this important Iranian historical monument in Susa.
After about 15 km on the Susa -Ahvaz Freeway, you will see the sign of Haft-Tape and the Chogha Zanbil on the left side of the road. If the guide was not available, be sure to ask local people for the Chogha Zanbil path. If you go from Susa to Chogha Zanbil, Be sure to visit the ancient site of Haft-Tape and its museum. Ask the museum guide to explain to you about this interesting site.
History of Chogha Zanbil
This sanctuary was built by Ontash Gal (about 1250 BC), the great king of the ancient Ilam, and the guardian of the city of Susa. Chogha Zanbil was destroyed by the Napal army along with ancient Ilam civilization. For many centuries, this building was buried under the soil, until it was excavated by the French archaeologists during the reign of second Pahlavi.
How was the Chogha Zanbil temple discovered?
In 1890, famous geologist Jacques Dorman reported that there are oil mines in the famous area of Chogha Zanbil. Apparently, as a result of this report, Iran’s oil company came into being. About fifty years later, engineers working in the oil field in that area sent a brick to the archaeological excavations in Susa on which there were writings, and this brick initiated a series of explorations in Chogha Zanbil and led to the discovery of interesting works.
Although the excavation of this building located in the heart of the plain, added to the world’s knowledge about the ancient Persian history, but after about 50 years of this discovery, the natural erosion and the unshakeable structure of the building in front of them caused great harm to this structure. Choghazenbil is one of the few Iranian buildings listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. In some historical books, the old name of Susa is called Chogha Zanbil.
Naqsh-e Jahan Square
Naqsh-e Jahan Square is located in northern part of Isfahan and in Dowlat Khaneh Safavi complex, on the east side of Hafez, and west of Sepah Street. That’s one of the most important sections of Iran Historical Tours in Isfahan.
History and Usage from the Past to Today
In these Iran Historical Tours we can see these places. There was a vast garden called Naqsh-e Jahan in this place before (before the city of Isfahan was chosen as the Safavid capital). This garden has its name from a city in Azerbaijan, now called Nakhichevan.
Shah Abbas transmits his capital from Qazvin to Isfahan due to political problems such as numerous encroachments of Iran and Ottomans, and also the geographical location of this city. For this purpose, according to the order of Shah Abbas, Sheikh Bahah prepares a new plan for Isfahan which is in contrast with the organization of the ancient city. He designed Naqsh-e Jahan Square as the connecting ring of these two ancient and new artifacts. Naqsh-e Jahan Square is inspired by its former patterns in Isfahan (Atiq Square of Al-Boya), Tabriz (Hassan Padeshah Square) and Qazvin (Ali Qapu Square). This place is considered as the culmination and most distinctive symbol of the authority and majesty of the kingdom and culture of its time.
During the period of Shah Abbas I in 1598, the garden has expanded to its present extent. They built the most famous and great monuments of Isfahan around it. They also erected Sheikh Lotf Allah mosque in the east of the square and the main building of Qapu in the west.
Instead of destroying the old texture of the city, Shah Abbas decided to expand the city towards the south, in the direction of the Zayanderud River. From that time on, the main expansion of the city moved around the Chaharbagh complex, the Shah Jahan Square, and towards Zayanderud River.
From the Shah’s place in the Ali Qapu Palace, Shah Abbas was watching the game of horse riders in the field. In Qajar period, this square was also neglected like other Isfahan monuments. Parts of the square was destroyed during the Iranian turmoil from Ashraf attack until the deployment of the Qajar government. Since the reign of Reza Shah until today, the repair and renovation work of this building has been continuing. One of the most significant measures that was carried out by Municipality during the first Pahlavi era was to revive Naqsh-e Jahan Square. In this period, the restoration of the pavilions and the establishment of various parts were conducted to restore the square and to revive the prosperity of the square as it was in the Safavid era.
The length of the square from the north to the south is over 500 and its width is about 165 meters. This field was slightly larger in the past and its surrounding markets (such as Ganj Ali Khan Kerman Square), then to make it stronger some arches were added to it and made it smaller. At the time of Shah Safi, these openings were turned into shops.
In the back of Arsan Square, there are many buildings and gardens stretching along the Zayanderud River, but today most of them are gone, and only some parts of Chehel Sotoun and Hasht-Behesht and some others are left. The margin of Imam Square in Isfahan is full of arches occupying space of different chambers. These chambers are among the magnificent and admired mansions of the Safavid period that are located on the edge of the square.
Persepolis is one of the most important historical monuments of Iran and the most important part of Iran Historical Tours. Every year many Iranian and foreign tourists visit this historic site. This monument was built by Darius, the Achaemenid king. In these Iran Historical Tours we have a lot of historical sites to visit.
Persepolis is located in Fars province on a land of more than 125000 square meters. This site is located above a rock that extends from the east side to Mount Mahd and from the north, south and west is located on the Marvdasht plain. its shape can be considered as a quadrangle with an approximate dimension of 455 meters on the western front, 300 meters on the north side, 430 meters on the east side and 390 meters on the south side. The length of the Persepolis is equal to the length of the Acropolis in Athens, but its width is four to five times the size of the Acropolis.
Darius’s great inscription on the wall of the southern side of this site explicitly testifies that there was no building in this place before. The total area of the Palace of Persepolis is 125 thousand square meters.
Based on the inscription and stones discovered in Persepolis, its main name was Parseh. These writings that existed on the wall indicate that at that time there were a hundred pillars here. After the creation of the Shahnameh by Ferdowsi, Jamshid, the mythological king of ancient Iran, succeeded Solomon, and the Persians said that the king, who was shown here on the beds and on the hands of people in the rock paintings, was Jamshid, and for this, they called it Persepolis.
The construction of Persepolis began in 512 BC, and its completion lasted 150 years. During this time, architects and artists gathered from all parts of Iran to create a building with their specialties and techniques, which did not have any other rivals in the world.
This ancient work is located on a mountain range called Mount Rahmat and in the city of Marvdasht that is 40 km away from Shiraz. Marvdasht is about 930 km from Tehran.
Takht-e Soleymān was the name of a great historical site near Takab and the village of Takht Soleymān. This site is considered as the largest educational, religious, social and religious center of Iran Historical Tours. It is one of the three great Fire Temples of Iran during the Sassanid era and is one of the most important part of Iran Historical Tours.
The Takht-e Soleymān World Heritage Site is considered to be the most important part of the Sassanid period (43 km north-east of Takab city and 3 km east of Takht-e Soleymān) in the southeastern province of West Azerbaijan. This area is limited to the north of the East Azerbaijan and to the east to Zanjan province and to the south and west to Takab.
Takht-e Soleymān or Ghanjak city that is located 45 kilometers northeast of Takab, lies in a lush valley at a height of 3000 meters in the West Azerbaijan province. The path leading to the bed of Takht-e Soleymān is paved, but dangerous. Takht-e Soleymān is the fourth historical monument that broke the 24-year-old silence of Iran in international arena, and was recorded in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2003. This monument has now become one of the tourism attractions in Iran. Also, the process of registering this historical collection in the UNESCO list began in the 2001 and ended in 2003.
After the collapse of the Sassanid government and the acceptance of Islam by Iranian people. This vast complex that was severely damaged in the wars of Iran and Rome at the time of Khosrow in 624 AD was no longer redeveloped. But during the 4th century, a small number of Zoroastrian carried out extensive repairs and built new structures there. Later, the site was also considered by the general public as a small settlement. It continues to be used until the 16th century. From this date onwards, this place was no longer used. But the popular beliefs of the locals, who consider the above place attributed to Suleiman Nabi protected this area against the destruction. The walls of this site has an oval shape with its large diameter in the north and south, and includes all the constructions of the complex and can be contacted through two gates.
Arg e Bam
The beautiful Arg-e Bam is used as the largest and oldest clay and mud structure of the world. Unfortunately, due to the terrible earthquake of on December 5, 2002, Bam became ruined. Before the big earthquake in this city it was one of the most important part of Iran Historical Tours.
Bam city in Kerman province is located approximately 180 km from the provincial capital in the southern part of the Lut plain and is among the major cities and areas of Kerman agriculture. The city is located in the east of the province, and is bounded to the north by Kerman and Lut, from the south to Jabal Barz and Jiroft, from the east to Sistan and Baluchistan and from the west to Baft and Bardsir. The height of the city is 1079 meters above sea level. Arg e Bam is located in the north part of the city.
There is not much information about the date of its construction, but tourists that had traveled here provided useful information about this site. From the famous writers who have provided useful information in the past is Hamdollah Mostofi. According to Shahnameh, the people of Bam before the rebellion Haftwad have been poor people. These people lived in the place where Ferdowsi Called Kajaran and probably also known as Kalalan.
The current castle of Arg e Bam has undergone alterations and redevelopments during different periods. What is certain is that the building that has been inhabited for almost a century ago has many influences on the architecture of the Islamic period, but parts of this castle were built prior to Islam, the most important of which is the Chahar Fasli. This mansion has three floors, which is completely different from the lower-class floors in terms of architectural features. The type of materials used are the arches and the shape of the arch represent most of the lower parts. The features of this section relate us to the features of the Sassanian period architecture and the period of the Parthians, and perhaps it could be related to the fort that was made by Ardeshir after the failure of Haftwad.
Dome of Soltaniyeh
Dome of Soltaniyeh was once the capital and housing of the nobles of Iran, and today is the tomb of Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh which is a part of Iran Historical Tours. The famous Dome of Soltaniyeh, which is seen in the path of Tehran-Zanjan from a distance in a magnificent color in the plains, is a huge dome that is one of the most beautiful domes in the world.
This dome is the first double-walled dome in the world that does not have any other counterparts. The thickness of the dome is 160 cm and the space between the two walls is around 60 cm. The double-wall system of the dome can be considered in relation to static issues. So, due to the high resistance of the building, it makes the hollow and the building intact against the earthquake. In the dome room, there are 8 heavy grains with a width of 78.6 meters, which transfer the weight of 1600 tons of domes to the Pillars. Although the Paulus considered this dome similar to the dome of the Church of Santamaría Delphiore in Florence, it is necessary to state that this beautiful brick building does not have the slightest similarity with any other the domes in the world. That’s one of the most attractive part of Iran Historical Tours.
In this tomb, for the first time in the history of Iranian architecture, a complex and detailed level of tile art has been used. Of course, the decorations in this building are made in two layers and there are various assumptions about this phenomenon. In connection with the use of this building as a sun clock, we should mention that the light coming from the main hole of the dome indicates the time of noon, the light that shines from the big windows, shows the hour and light coming from the small windows representing the minute. Soltaniyeh dome that is a brick-built octagon, is 25 meters in the diameter. At the connection side of each two columns, there are two thick and high pillar next to each other.
The inscription of the Behistun on an inaccessible hill that is not read at all from the bottom of the mountain indicates that Darius the Great had not only displayed its great history to the people of his time, but also to all other people in the future. That’s one of the most important parts of Iran Historical Tours.
The road that started today from Hamadan and passes through the cities of Kermanshah to the land of Mesopotamia, is the same road that linked the eastern and middle eastern lands of the West to the Babylon, Nineveh and other cities of the Middle East. During this long journey, and especially in Behistun, there are many ancient memorials that mark the special importance of this ancient route. Behistun is the 7th registered Iranian monument in the UNESCO World list that is located 30 kilometers away from east of Kermanshah.
The Behistun inscription was written in three languages of Ancient Persian, Elamite, Babylonian or Akkadian. After decoding the ancient Persian, scientists understood that this images belonged to Darius and his two chiefs and ten insurgents who rose in the early days of his reign, and also it describes the suppression of these rebels.